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Mimo is the technology that is advancing the wireless industry from 3G to 4G systems, and this book is your essential guide to this major development in wireless.
Table of contents

The Alamouti code works with pairs of symbols at a time. It takes two time periods to transmit the two symbols. The Rayleigh fading model is particularly useful in scenarios where the signal may be considered to be scattered between the transmitter and receiver. In this form of scenario there is no single signal path that dominates and a statistical approach is required to the analysis of the overall nature of the radio communications channel.

Rayleigh fading is a model that can be used to describe the form of fading that occurs when multi path propagation exists. In any terrestrial environment a radio signal will travel via a number of different paths from the transmitter to the receiver. The most obvious path is the direct, or line of sight path.

MIMO 802.11N Tutorial

However there will be very many objects around the direct path. These objects may serve to reflect, refract, etc the signal. As a result of this, there are many other paths by which the signal may reach the receiver. When the signals reach the receiver, the overall signal is a combination of all the signals that have reached the receiver via the multitude of different paths that are available. These signals will all sum together, the phase of the signal being important. Dependent upon the way in which these signals sum together, the signal will vary in strength.

If they were all in phase with each other, they would all add together. However this is not normally the case, as some will be in phase and others out of phase, depending upon the various path lengths, and therefore some will tend to add to the overall signal, whereas others will subtract. Rayleigh fading model has support for troposphere and ionosphere signal propagation.

MIMO Alamouti coding

It is most applicable when there is no distinct dominant path along LOS, between the transmitter and receiver. In this regard, Jakes introduced a model for Rayleigh fading based on summing sinusoids. Jakes model works equally, if the single path channel is being modeled or multi path frequency-selective channel is required. The Jakes model also popularized the Doppler spectrum associated with Rayleigh fading and as the result this Doppler spectrum is often termed as Jakes spectrum. Rayleigh fading is a reasonable model when there are many objects in the environment that scatter the radio signal before it arrives at the receiver.

The central limit theorem holds that, if there is sufficiently much scatter, the channel impulse response will be well-modeled as a Gaussian process irrespective of the distribution of the individual components. The envelope of the channel response will therefore be Rayleigh distributed. Calling this random variable R, it will have a probability density function:.

The principle of space time block coding with 2 transmit antenna and one receive antenna is explained in the post on Alamouti STBC.

The LabVIEW Simulation of Space-Time Coding ...

The received signal in the first time slot is,Assuming that the channel remains constant for the second time slot, the received signal is in the second time slot is,. Group them into pair of two symbols. Code it per the Alamouti Space Time code. Nespola, A. Abrate, R.

Gaudino, C. Zerna, B. Offenbeck, and N.

Argyris, E. Grivas, M. Hamacher, A. Bogris, and D. Grivas, N. Raptis, and D. Lightwave Technol. Mateo, M. Losada, and J. Lee, F.

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Space–time code

Breyer, S. Randel, H. Greenberg, M. Nazarathy, and M. Zhang, X. Xia, and K. Hsu, A. Tarighat, A. Shah, A. Sayed, and B. Djordjevich and S.


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MIMO Network and the Alamouti, STBC (Space Time Block Coding)

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